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February 18, 2021, 13:00 – 15:00 (UTC) on ZOOM
Organised with: UNA Europa
Not all heritage sites, including World Heritage sites, are places of aesthetic delectation, bear exceptional testimonies to a cultural tradition or to a civilization, are masterpieces of human creative genius, or exhibit interchanges of human values, developments in architecture or technology, arts, town-planning or landscape design. Some are associated with traumatic events, with conflicts and with violence perpetrated by humans to other humans. This is for example the case for several UNESCO sites, mainly listed under criterion (vi) related to memories of colonialism and slavery, conflicts, wars, nuclear disasters. Many other heritage sites have a national or local importance because of the messages they convey rather than for their materiality. These sites put specific questions in terms of their – often – conflicting narratives, of their interpretation to different audiences and of their visitor management. This seminar aims at analyzing these issues, based on several examples of heritage sites.
This workshop is organized by the Europen University UNA Europa. UNA Europa brings together 8 major European universities: Freie Universität Berlin; Alma Mater Studiorum – Università di Bologna; Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowie; University of Edinburgh; University of Helsinki; KU Leuven; Universidad Complutense de Madrid; Université Paris 1 Panthéon- Sorbonne. One of the main thematic areas of UNA Europa is Cultural Heritage, theme to which UNA Europa will dedicate a Joint PhD starting from fall 2021.
Maria GRAVARI-BARBAS, Paris 1, Panthéon-Sorbonne University
Magdalena BANASZKIEWICZ, Jagellonian University, Krakow ; Patrizia BATTILANI, University of Bologna; Patrick LEECH, University of Bologna/ATRIUM; Carolina RODRIGUEZ LOPEZ, UCM; Dominique VANNESTE, KU Leuven.
Isidora Stankovic, Paris 1, Panthéon-Sorbonne University
INTRODUCTION: Maria GRAVARI-BARBAS
Dominique VANNESTE, KU Leuven, “First World War battlefield heritage: dissonant aspects”
In 2014-2018, the centennial of the First World War was commemorated. Notwithstanding most wounds are healed and the material heritage is barely considered dissonant anymore, one can still distinguish some clashes. We will present three examples. One is todays’ dissonant experience about certain visitors’ behaviour, especially at war cemeteries (e.g. Tyne Cot, Flanders, Belgium). Another is about nationalism and glorification of war which are, according to some, still lingering in certain commemorative events (e.g. Armistice Day). Still another, of course, is the ongoing discussion on (not) listing war heritage on the UNESCO World Heritage List (e.g. French and Belgian war heritage at the western WWI front).
Maria GRAVARI-BARBAS, Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, “Tourism at World Heritage sites related to disso- nant memories: challenges and perspectives”
Several World heritage sites are inscribed on the list on the basis of exclusively criterion (vi). They convey traumatic memories related to slavery, colonization and wars and introduce specific questions and issues in terms of their management and interpretation. Drawing on specific examples of sites linked to traumatic memories, the presentation will discuss how tourism can be a means for debate, critical discussion and, eventually, reconciliation with the past.
Patrick Leech, University of Bologna, “Promoting critical tourism on dissonant heritage: the case of the ATRIUM cultural route”
This presentation intends to examine some of the problems encountered in the promotion of a critical and mindful tourism on the topic of the dissonant material heritage left behind by totalitarian regimes in Europe. It will introduce the cultural route ‘ATRIUM’ (Architecture of Totalitarian Regimes in Europe’s Urban Memory): an itinerary recognized by the Council of Europe in 2014 operating in Italy, Croatia, Albania, Bulgaria and Rumania. It will then examine some of the different initiatives that members of the route have undertaken and the difficulties faced in promoting and managing cultural tourism around this topic.
Patrizia BATTILANI, University of Bologna, “How interpreting dissonant heritage: co-creating school tourism experiences with students”
Since the middle of the 19th century interpretation has been one of the keys to success for heritage sites. However, dissonance requires specific attention, regardless the method or experience interpreters adopt. As a matter of fact, interpretation transforms the concepts included in heritage assets into enjoyable living situations, simple statements and in well-defined feelings. On the contrary dissonance is not enjoyable, well defined or simple. This presentation intends to present the co-creation methodology experienced in 2019 within the European Project Atrium+ to avoid these risks in designing school tourism experiences on the totalitarian regime heritage.
Magdalena BANASZKIEWICZ, Jagellonian University, “The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone – a post-apocalyptic amusement park or a cultural heritage site?”
The presentation reflects on difficulties related to the tourism development in a dissonant heritage site. The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone is simultaneously a natural reserve, a site of memory, an area of scientific research and a tourist attraction. The interpretative approaches depend on the axiological perspective of the various stakeholders. As a result, the assessment of heritage value translates into different strategies of preservation, protection and development.
Carolina RODRÍGUEZ-LÓPEZ, UCM, “The places of the Spanish Civil War and Franco’s Regime in Ma- drid: interpretation and touristic uses of a dissonant heritage”.
Since last year, a new democratic memory law, approved by the Spanish Parliament, seeks to study, democratically interpret and re-signify the spaces related to the civil war and the dictatorship of the Franco regime in Spain. The law will not only change the name of the few streets and monuments that are still dedicated to Franco and his supporters in the war but will explain and insert in a democratic narrative such a dissonant heritage like the Fallen Valley and the Arch of Triumph of the Campus of Madrid. Four decades after Franco’s death and once some places had been traditionally exploited by touristic firms (with evident nostalgic discourse), the new law explores what can be done in order to explain (with a historiography narrative) and to show (from a democratic perspective) the traits of the Spanish Civil War and Franco’s Regime. This paper explores the current initiatives in this topic as well as some others recently developed.
Rapporteur: Isidora STANKOVIC, Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne Panelists
Magdalena Banaszkiewicz, cultural anthropologist specializing in tourism and heritage studies. She is an associate professor working in the Institute of Intercultural Studies (Jagi- ellonian University). She is an author of the monograph “Tourism in dissonant heritage sites” (2018) and co-editor of “Anthropology of Tourism in Central and Eastern Europe: Bridging Worlds” (2018).
Patrizia Battilani is full professor of Economic history and Head of the Center for Advanced Studies on Tourism of the University of Bologna. Her teaching and research interests include the history of culture and tourism with applications in the field of participatory tourism planning and enhancement of cultural heritage; economic and business history. She is responsible for the UNIBO Unit of the Interreg Italy-Croatia project Recolor (Reviving and EnhanCing artwOrks and Landscapes Of the adRiatic). Between 2018 and 2019 she coor- dinated a transnational research on dissonant heritage focusing on the European cultural route ATRIUM.
Maria Gravari-Barbas Maria Gravari-Barbas has a degree in Architecture and Urban De- sign (University of Athens, 1985) and a PhD in Geography and Planning (Paris IV – Sor- bonne, 1991). She is the Director of the EIREST, a multidisciplinary research team dedicated to tourism studies, with main focus on cultural heritage, development, and urban-tourism evolutions. Since 2009 she is the director of the UNESCO Chair of Paris 1 Panthéon-Sor- bonne University and the coordinator of the UNITWIN network ‘Tourism, Culture, Develop- ment’. She is the author of several books and papers related to Tourism, Culture and Her- itage. She currently is the Chait of the UNA Europa Alliance (https://www.una-europa.eu/) Steering Committee for Cultural heritage, and the convenor of the tourism theme of Our- WorldHeritage initiative.
Patrick Leech is Associate Professor of English language and culture at the Department of Interpreting and Translation, University of Bologna. His teaching and research interests in- clude aspects of heritage in Britain, in particular with regard to perceptions of Britain’s colonial and imperial history. As part of the Third Mission activities of the University of Bo- logna, he is President of the ATRIUM Association. He is currently the delegate of the Rector of the University of Bologna for multilingualism and interculturality.
Carolina Rodriguez Lopez, UCM, is Associate Professor of Contemporary History at Com- plutense University of Madrid. Member of the Figuerola Institute of History and Social Sci- ences at Carlos III University of Madrid and of the Ortega y Gasset-Marañon Foundation. Director of CIAN-Journal of the History of Universities (www.uc3m.es/cian), Director of Ex- pehistoria. Research Group on Sociocultural and intellectual history and Director of the Complutense Workshop on University History. She was also Director of Complutense Inter- pretation Center of University Campus of Madrid. Her main research interests lie in the field of history of universities in Spain and in Europe during the contemporary period, academic migrations and academic exiles, landscapes of war and reconstructions, history of Tourism, history of emotions and historiography.
She is member of the project RUINES (Université de Lille- CNRS). Her last published book is: C. Rodríguez López et al. (eds.), Paisajes de guerra: Paisajes de guerra (1939-2016). Hue- llas, reconstrucción y patrimonio, Madrid, Casa de Velázquez-Ediciones Complutense, 2019.
Isidora Stankovic is a post-doctoral manager for the focus area “Cultural Heritage” within Una Europa 1Europe project, and a researcher at the Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne Univer- sity. Areas of her research interest include the questions of heritagization, urban heritage, relation between public policies and civil society initiatives. From 2011 to 2014, Isidora worked as a teaching associate on heritage studies’ courses at the University of Belgrade. She collaborated on different national & international research projects, among which, Horizon 2020 project Cultural Base. Social Platform on Cultural Heritage and European Identities.
Dominique Vanneste is full professor at the University of Leuven (KU Leuven, Division of Geography and Tourism) in Belgium. She is the director of a R&D Unit ‘ASTOR’ (Association for Tourism Research), founder of a Master in Tourism at KU Leuven and program director for the Erasmus Mundus Master in Sustainable Territorial Development. Awesome scholar in Tourism, Griffith Univ, 2018. Organizer of the 6th UNESCO UNITWIN Conference 2019. Her main lecturing and research topics are: Economic geography (regional development, networking and co-creation), Historical geography (relationship between landscape, heritage, identity and conserva- tion) and Tourism (sustainable and responsible tourism, heritage tourism, geo-tourism, slow tourism).